Semester 2


Concept of Curriculum- Meaning and Definitions

• Curriculum is the base in education on which the teaching-learning process is planned and implemented.

• Curriculum includes all planned learning experiences organised by a school based on the educational aims and objectives.

• Curriculum is the sum total of a school's academic and non-academic experiences. It is based on educational intended outcomes to fulfil the personal and

social growth of the learners.

Narrow  Meaning of Curriculum

• It emphasises teaching subjects;

• It works to produce certificates and degrees;

• It develops only mental ability; and

• It is more under teacher and administrative control.

Broader Meaning of Curriculum

• It includes total experiences given by manifold activities;

• Includes both curricular and co-curricular activities;

• It works to develop the personality of the child;

• It has a more creative and forward outlook; and

• It is child-centred


“Curriculum includes all the learning experiences offered to all the learners under the direction of the school”-C. Ronald

“The school curriculum becomes what it is in any school at any given moment because of social setting, the ideals and commitment of individuals and the skill, understanding and strategy of those concerned with change”- Kimbal Wiles

“Curriculum as the sum total of student activities which the school sponsors for the purpose of achieving is objectives”- Alberty, A. and Alberty, E

“Curriculum’ as all experiences which a pupil has under the guidance of the school”- The Blond’s Encyclopaedia of Education

“Curriculum is the totality in the hands of an artist (teacher) to mould his material (pupil) in accordance with the ideal in his studio (school)”- Cunningham

Thus, a curriculum is an instructional programme through which pupils achieve their goals. An overall understanding of curriculum also provides insight into the concept of curriculum.

Nature of Curriculum: A curriculum is-

• A sum total of the school subjects and other activities;

• A mirror which reflects a school’s curricular and co-curricular activities; and

• Includes all subjects, which help a child in its cognitive development.

• Curriculum includes many classroom lessons, cultural activities, laboratory activities, workshops, and sports activities.

• Curriculum is the totality of experiences.

• Curriculum provides experiences to respond, react, and reflect on various learning processes. It depends on the learner, and what he experiences.

• Curriculum is based on intended learning outcome.

• Curriculum, in one sense, is cultural reproduction- Concepts of knowledge and skills such as values, religion, and political system are incorporated in the curriculum, reflecting belief and all cultural aspects.

• It is an agenda for social reconstruction- Schools provide a plan of knowledge, which is curriculum-based, and this guides students to enrich society's cultural institutions

NCF Recommends

NCERT is the official agency in India for deciding the curriculum framework for schools. In India, during the 2005 National Curriculum Framework (NCF-2005) the new policy was drafted (NCF-2005, 2012).

NCF is a needful feature of the national education system.

The national education system is a common education system at a different level. This aims to bring a minimum level of learning at all levels providing minimum facilities to all schools of the nation so that specific quality of education can be provided to children. It is an approach to minimize provincial inequalities among children.

NCF 2005 recommends

• Bringing arts, work, peace, health, and physical education into the domain of the curricular infusing them in all areas of learning, while giving them an identity of their own at relevant stages. Enable learners to find their voices, nurture their curiosity to think, ask questions, and integrate their experience with school knowledge rather than reproduce textual knowledge.

• Shift from content-based testing to problem-solving and competency-based testing.

• Use of technology in teaching-learning

• Shift from teacher-centric to learner-centric with flexible designs, and processes providing wider social context to learning as well as multiple and diverse text postures.

In accordance with the NCF-2005, curriculum is significant in school education for the following reasons:

● Curriculum works to the all-round development of the child. It is child-centred and develops all values.

● Creates the citizenry conscious of their rights and duties, commitment to principles embodied in our constitution. This must be the priority of the school's education.

● Enables the younger generation to reinterpret and re-evaluate the past with reference to new priorities and emerging outlooks of a changing societal context